Diderot, Denis, Satire

Review of The Nun by Diderot (spoilers)

Image result for nun book diderotLa Religieuse (English: Memoirs of a Nun, or The Nun) tells the story of Suzanne, who is donated to a convent under the pretense of being a financial burden to her family. But in time, Sister Suzanne learns that she is the product of an adulterous affair between her mother and another man. Suzanne’s mother placed her daughter in a convent to avoid family scandal and to atone for her sin. For several personal and financial reasons, Suzanne has no choice but to take the veil.

Sister Suzanne hates religious life. She views the convent as a prison. And indeed, the 19-year-old girl faces untold abuse at the hands of the Superior. She is forbidden from receiving any of the sacraments, including confession. The other sisters shun and insult her, scatter broken glass in her path, and deprive her of basic necessities such as food and clothing. A sympathetic sister helps Suzanne contact a powerful attorney, and the case goes to trial. But the Church is a powerful institution, and no amount of evidence will free Suzanne of her religious duties.

Finally, she is moved to another convent with a Superior who, at first, appears sympathetic to Suzanne’s suffering. The Mother Superior treats the girl like a princess, listening to her story, offering her the best living conditions, and allowing her to skip confession. Unfortunately, this Superior’s intentions are equally nefarious. Under the guise of compassion, she sexually assaults Suzanne. The girl is too innocent and ignorant to understand what’s happening. She often feels uncomfortable, but she cannot put words to her experience. By all appearance, the Superior is a kind and loving person. Yet, a confessor insists that Suzanne avoid the woman at all cost. His successor goes further and offers to help Suzanne escape. But yet again, she leaves the frying pan only to end up in the fire. He also sexually abuses her. At the end of the novel, we learn that Suzanne has taken up work in a brothel and is requesting that the Count to whom she has been telling her story will save her once and for all from the hell that has been her life.

Diderot’s inspiration was a practical joke between a Marquis de Croismare and a nun named Marguerite Delamarre. Shortly after the marquis failed to free Marguerite, Diderot and his friends wrote to Croismare, pretending to be yet another sister in need. Unlike the book’s inspiration, La Religieuse is not a lighthearted read. Diderot exposes the hypocrisy, corruption, and abuse of the institutional Church. Many of the descriptions of abuse are vivid and believable.

But I don’t know how to feel about this work. On the one hand, Suzanne’s experience was all too common in the 18th century. Many women were forced to take the veil against their will. They either went mad from grief or were punished for their disobedience. And today, clerical sexual abuse is a global scandal that has barely been addressed in any meaningful way.

Nevertheless, I sensed a dose of misogyny in the work. Diderot’s nuns are jealous, vindictive, irrational, and emotional. I was also troubled by how sexual assault is treated in the second half of the novel. Suzanne’s Superior is presented as a libertine with lesbian desires. Her acts are condemned as sinful but not abusive. In fact, I get the impression that Diderot considers the situation highly amusing. The victim is too ignorant to notice what is going on. Furthermore, same-sex attraction is presented as an unfortunate consequence of forcing religious life on unwilling girls. The assault scenes were particularly uncomfortable to read because the Superior is presented as a libertine rather than a predator.

And yet, I was also impressed by Diderot’s understanding of human psychology and institutional corruption. At several points in the story, I felt that Suzanne’s thoughts and actions accurately reflect those of an abuse victim. She wants to stay away from her predatory Superior, despite believing that the woman’s intentions are pure. There is a disconnect between what she believes and how she feels. While I was shocked that the physically abusive Superior prevents Suzanne from receiving any of the sacraments, including Confession, abusers don’t behave rationally. Perhaps, the Superior didn’t want to give Suzanne — whom she knew remained vehemently opposed to religious life — the opportunity for reconciliation with the community. Suzanne tries in vain to obey convent rules, in hopes that the abuse will cease. Victims are often made to believe that abuse is deserved, a consequence of something they’ve done. That if they changed their behavior, the abuse would stop.

I find Diderot’s works interesting for the philosophical and social issues they tackle. There is a lot to appreciate in this novel, but I don’t think it was his story to tell. The misogyny and somewhat humorous treatment of sexual assault makes La Religieuse a difficult book to appreciate in the #MeToo movement.

Social Justice, Voltaire

Voltaire’s Treatise on Tolerance (The Calas Affair)

Image result for the calas affair
François Dubois, The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (c. 1576)

On March 10, 1762 Jean Calas was tortured and executed for allegedly murdering his son Marc-Antoine. Although Jean was the only member of the family executed, his wife, servant, son Paul, and friend M. Gaubert Lavaysse were also implicated in the murder. The Calas affair came to Voltaire’s attention because it appeared to be a case of religious fanaticism.

Jean’s eldest son Louis had already converted to Catholicism years earlier, and the family employed a Catholic servant. Still, the court sided with the crowd and ruled that Jean murdered his Catholic son for heresy. If Jean was required by his Calvinist faith to murder his son (as the Catholic prosecutors claimed), why did he employ a Catholic servant? And why would the Catholic servant agree to murder a fellow Catholic?

In all appearances, Marc-Antoine committed suicide. The family members were eating dinner when their son suddenly left the room. His body was found hanging in the front room.

Even before the law stepped in, a crowd of Catholics carried the body away and buried in consecrated ground. They began venerating Marc-Antoine as a Catholic martyr. The judges in Toulouse could not agree on the case, but they condemned Jean to death anyway. Through a series of authentic and potentially fictional letters, The Calas Affair traces the events leading up to and following the death of Marc-Antoine.

But it’s the following Treatise on Tolerance that is arguably more important than the précis of the affair. Here, Voltaire makes a case for religious tolerance.

I was surprised by Voltaire’ knowledge of the Bible. He clearly followed contemporary Biblical scholarship. Although some people accuse Voltaire of antisemitism, I had the opposite impression. Voltaire condemns the violence of the Old Testament, but he also  argues that early Judaism was more tolerant than 18th century Christianity. Voltaire is only intolerant toward Atheists because he assumes that they are necessarily amoral. Voltaire may have be a Deist and highly critical of organized religion, but he was influenced by and admired many aspects of the Judeo-Christian tradition. In The Treatise on Tolerance, Voltaire targets particularly the Christian dogmatic tradition for promoting heresy hunting .

Voltaire rightly argues that the ancient Romans were by and large tolerant toward different religions. The periods of persecution were the exception to the rule. You would think that a persecuted religion such as Christianity would know what persecution feels like and avoid persecuting others. But Christians of all stripes have committed numerous atrocities over the centuries.

Voltaire makes it clear that the Gospels do not promote violence and intolerance. In an eye-opening commentary on the Old Testament, Voltaire demonstrates that the Old Testament God is only concerned about the behavior of the Jewish people. God is not concerned about the behavior of Gentile religions. Finally, God’s punishments and rewards are immediate and temporal. Voltaire references Hebrew, questions the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, considers whether Judaism began as semi-polytheistic, and has a detailed knowledge of the early ecclesiastical councils – evidence that he kept up with contemporary religious scholarship.

Voltaire argues throughout his treatise that fanaticism is not only irrational but also a violation of true faith. It is hypocrisy at its finest. The Treatise on Tolerance is all the more convincing for its simplicity. Today, most people in the West take it for granted that executing perceived heretics is wrong, but religious bigotry is unfortunately alive and well. 18th century justifications for the persecution of French Protestants (Huguenots) sound eerily familiar.

If much of Voltaire’s argument seems obvious to most readers, that’s because we have progressed a lot in the past three hundred years. It certainly wasn’t obvious to many of his contemporaries. In 1572, anywhere between 10,000 and 70,000 Huguenots were massacred on St. Bartholomew’s Day. In the 1700s, when Voltaire wrote The Treatise on Tolerance, Catholics still celebrated the anniversary of the massacre!

The Treatise on Tolerance is a reminder of what prejudice is capable of. While some sections are humorous, it is not a satire. Voltaire cuts to the heart of the matter. This is definitely a work worth revisiting in our increasingly intolerant age.